Škoda is a railway locomotive, tram and trolleybus manufacturer based in the Czech Republic. It was established in 1859 and over the years has been involved in various engineering projects including World War I naval battleship guns, tanks, brewery equipment and automobiles.
It was nationalized by the communists and became dedicated to heavy and transport engineering. Škoda trolleybuses were supplied to many Iron Curtain countries during that period.
Škoda was privatized in 1989 and in 1992 gained a CEO who was a minority shareholder, then following a period of expansion and acquistion which loaded the company with huge debts, threatening bankruptcy. In 1999 an agreement with banks placed the company on a firmer footing.