Alexander Dennis Enviro400
|Years of manufacture||2005 to present|
|Length||10.4 or 11.5 metres|
On November 4, 2008, a diesel-electric series hybrid version called the Enviro400H was unveiled at the Euro Bus Expo in Birmingham, England.
The modular chassis is made from bolted steel sections and treated with corrosion resistant two-pack epoxy. The body is constructed from aluminium extrusions with stainless steel reinforcement and is integrated with the chassis using clean frame joints. The dissimilar metals are treated with dielectric paint to prevent corrosion. The side panels are aluminium which are bonded to the frame. The roof structures are one-piece composite panels. Polymers are used for the front and rear faces.
The Enviro400 chassis can be fitted with bodywork from other suppliers. Likewise, the Enviro400 body can be fitted onto the Volvo Buses B9TL and the Scania N230UD chassis. There is one example of an Enviro400 body fitted on a Volvo B7TL chassis before the introduction of the B9TL.
Coincident with Euro 5, the Enviro400 chassis was revised with the radiator on the offside and the engine on the nearside. The engine was originally mounted on the offside due to the layout of the ZF rear axle. A new axle layout allowed for a simplified straight angle drive. The revised Enviro400 also has an additional 50 millimetres of ground clearance.
A facelifted Enviro400 body debuted at the 2009 Coach & Bus Live. A line of white LED lights was incorporated under the existing headlights, and new curves were added on the front bumper.
The first Enviro400 buses to operate in Hong Kong (for Citybus and Kowloon Motor Bus) were delivered in 2009. They feature a large HVAC system and the updated front fascia. Further exports of the Enviro400 were made to Canada and the United States, however only as an open-top sightseeing bus. One of the first orders was placed in 2010 for 10 Enviro400 buses from Coach USA subsidiary Twin America, in New York. The front and rear of the export variants' top deck share the design of the Enviro500 respective of region.
The Euro 6 Enviro400 was introduced in May 2014 and features a new look, new heating and ventilation system, new glazing system, decreased weight, and increased seating capacity. Under a Major Model Change project, Alexander Dennis worked with over 70 operators in a three-year period to improve the design of the Enviro400.
The updated Enviro400 continues with the curved and sloping front end. A new headlight cluster flows into the windshield and the front and rear bumpers are accented by a cut-out at the bottom. Glazing on the front and rear is flush-mounted to the body instead of gasket mounted as previously used. The rear around the engine flares outward gently. This is evoked on the front around the destination sign and windshield.
The interior was redesigned with elements to improve ergonomics and appeal for both passengers and drivers. The bus is able to seat one more person in a London configuration, five more in the hybrid model, and seven more in the full-length model. The bus now features Alexander Dennis's L-shaped "Square-case" staircase. The electrical system is housed within the body structure and is composed of modular sections for easier replacement.
The updated Enviro400 features Alexander Dennis's Quick Release Glazing (QRG) system. The window frame is attached to the body with its face flush with the body panels, and the glass is retained against the frame by a removable retainer. This allows the glass to be removed from inside the vehicle instead of from an external platform.
While the previous frame was welded, the new Enviro400 uses mechanical fasteners. In addition, high stress areas now make uses of stainless steel. To reduce weight and increase stiffness, the roof and interdeck use one-piece composite panels.
Specifications (on Enviro400 chassis)
10.100m, 10.800m (Euro 3 & 4)
|Height: 4.2 or 4.3m|
|Gross Vehicle Weight:|
|Caterpillar C7 7.2 litre, 230 or 250 hp||Euro 4||2006 to 2009|
|Cummins ISBe 6 cylinder 6.7 litre , 250 hp||Euro 4, 5 and 6||2006 onwards|
|Cummins ISCe 8.3 litre, 250 hp||Euro 3||2005 to 2006|
|Cummins ISL9||EPA 2010 and 2013||2011 onwards (North America)|
|Cummins ISLe||Euro 5||2009 onwards (Hong Kong)|
|MAN D0836||Euro 5||2009 to 2013|
|Allison B400R||2011 onwards (North America)|
|Voith D854.5||2005 to 2014|
|Voith D864.5||2009 onwards (Hong Kong)|
|Voith D854.6||2014 onwards|
|ZF 5HP502C||2005 to 2009|
|ZF 6AP1203B||2009 onwards|
|ZF 6AP1403B||2009 onwards (Hong Kong)|
|Kirkstall NDS80LF 8000 kg capacity, 55° lock angle||2005 to 2014|
|ZF RL 75 7500 kg capacity, 55° lock angle||2014 onwards|
|ZF AV 132 13,000 kg capacity|
|Air disc brakes with ABS|
|ZF 8098 integrally powered, variable ratio|
- City Sightseeing Toronto - Toronto, ON
- Cruise Victoria - Victoria, BC
- Lady Dive Tours - Ottawa, ON
- Les Tours du Vieux Québec - Québec, QC
- Arriva London - London
- Arriva Shires & Essex - Luton, Bedfordshire
- Bournemouth University (operated by Wilts & Dorset) - Bournemouth, Dorset
- Carters Coach Services - Capel St Mary, Suffolk
- First London - London
- Harford Park & Ride (operated by Konectbus) - Norwich, Norfolk
- Hedingham & District Omnibuses - Essex
- East London Bus Group - London
- Go-Ahead London/London General - London
- Metroline - London
- National Express West Midlands - West Midlands
- Stagecoach in Cambridge - Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
- Stagecoach in Cheltenham - Cheltenham, Gloucestershire
- Stagecoach in Devon - Devon
- First Devon & Cornwall - Devon and Cornwall
- Stagecoach London - London
- Stagecoach Manchester - Greater Manchester
- Stagecoach in The Fens - Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire
- Travel West Midlands - West Midlands
- Western Greyhound - Newquay, Cornwall
- Dublin Bus - Dublin, Lainster
- First Glasgow - Glasgow
- ↑ Euro 5 Enviro400, alexander-dennis.com, retrieved on 2009-09-11
- ↑ ADL gears up for export drive with diesel and hybrid models, alexander-dennis.com, retrieved on 2010-11-12
- ↑ The all-new Enviro400 – designed by the industry for the industry. Alexander Dennis. 01 May 2014. Press release. retrieved on 03 May 2014.
- ↑ Patent WO 2013156802 A1